Oftentimes, brain cells injury takes place in the event that the oxygen supply to the brain isn’t adequate. Some cells might just be able to recover but some of it may die. A common cause for oxygen deprivation to the brain is low oxygen levels in the blood or perhaps, reduced flow of oxygen to the brain. This could happen in many different ways before birth, during birth process, after birth and even during childhood.
There are different alternate diagnosis for this condition actually including perinatal asphyxia, perinatal encephalopathy, neonatal encephalopathy or birth asphyxia. There are two stages for the HIE injury; one of which is the immediately after oxygen deprivation and two, it can take place as normal oxygenated blood circulation resumes to the brain. Fact is, this is also called as reperfusion injury by experts which could happen because the toxins are released from the damaged cells.
Many are wondering what and how HIE happens. Well for the What part, there are numerous factors that might just cause HIE including true umbilical knots, placental abruption, uterine rupture, placental insufficiency, trauma during delivery, extremely low maternal blood pressure, maternal blood clotting disorders, cord compression, aneurysm rupture, cord prolapsed, fetal maternal hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, placental blood clots, cardiac arrests as well as near SIDS events.
As for the diagnosis of HIE in newborn baby, this is carried out by using several diagnostic tools and among which is the Sarnat Scale. This is basically based on how the baby looks like after injury or birth or presentation at hospital. In addition to that, it can be diagnosed as well through imaging similar to MRI, ultrasound and EEG while other health experts are checking for cord blood gas levels.
In relation to the treatment of HIE, this will basically depend on some criteria. More often than not, it has shown to reduce disability and death as well to perform cooling or therapeutic hypothermia. You may find it hard to believe one of the most popular and most suggested is the cooling treatment. While this is just the most popular, please be aware that there are many different kinds of treatments used globally.
When it comes to therapeutic hypothermia, it could be done through a cooling cap placed on the head or by cooling the entire body. While the newborn is on their recovery period, they may be given with other medical intervention to support organs.
The rate of babies diagnosed with HIE on the other hand runs on a ratio of 2 to 3 babies in every 1000 full term births.